Please see the Mayo Clinic web site for further details

1. Show that you know first aid for injuries or illnesses likely to occur in backcountry outings, including
		any condition in which the temperature of a body drops below the level required for normal metabolism and/or bodily function to take place
		Stage 1
			Body temperature drops 1 deg C - 2 deg C below normal
			Mild to strong shivering occurs
			Unable to perform complex tasks with the hands; the hands become numb
			Breathing becomes quick and shallow
			Goose bumps form, raising body hair on end
		Stage 2
			Body temperature drops by 2 deg C - 4 deg C
			Shivering becomes more violent
			Muscle mis-coordination becomes apparent
			Movements are slow and labored, accompanied by a stumbling pace
			mild confusion, although the victim may appear alert
			Victim becomes pale. Lips, ears, fingers and toes may become blue.
		Stage 3
			Body temperature drops below approximately 32 deg C or 90 deg F (normal is 37 deg C or 98.6 deg F)
			Shivering usually stops
			difficulty speaking, sluggish thinking, and amnesia start to appear
			inability to use hands and stumbling are also usually present
			the exposed skin becomes blue and puffy
			muscle coordination very poor, walking nearly impossible
			the victim exhibits incoherent/irrational behavior including terminal burrowing behavior or even a stupor
			Pulse and respiration rates decrease significantly but fast heart rates can occur
			Major organs fail
		First Aid
			Take the person inside to room temperature and cover him or her with warm blankets
			If going indoors is not possible, get the person out of the wind and use a blanket to provide insulation from the cold ground
			Cover the person's head and neck to help retain body heat
			Once inside, remove any wet or constricting clothes and replace them with dry clothing
			Warm the person. Apply warm compresses or packs to the neck, chest wall, armpits and groin
			If the person is alert and can easily swallow, give warm, sweetened, nonalcoholic fluids to aid the warming
			Assume that you should obtain a doctor if the victim has been exposed for 24 hours or more
			DO NOT use your own body heat to re-warm the subject, this may very well cause you to become hypothermic
			DO NOT assume that someone found lying motionless in the cold is already dead
			DO NOT use direct heat (such as hot water, a heating pad, or a heat lamp) to warm the person
			DO NOT give the person alcohol
			DO NOT rub the person's limbs because this may cause further tissue damage
			WARNING Any rough handling of an extremely hypothermic person could cause their heart to stop
				Get them out of the cold, but do it gently
	heat exhaustion
			The Stage before heatstroke when body fluids are lost through sweating, causing the body to overheat
			mental confusion
			muscle cramps
			often nausea or vomiting
		when the body produces or absorbs more heat than it can dissipate, life-threatening
			At this stage the victim will likely NOT be sweating
			Victims may become confused, may become hostile and may seem intoxicated
			often experience headache
			blood pressure may drop significantly
			possible fainting or dizziness
			heart rate and respiration rate will increase
			skin will become red
		As heat stroke progresses
			a pale or bluish skin color
			Complaints of feeling hot may be followed by chills and trembling
			Some victims, especially young children, may suffer convulsions
			temporary blindness may also be observed
			body organs begin to fail
		First Aid
			The victim should be moved to a cool area (indoors, or at least in the shade) and extra clothing removed to promote heat loss
			The person can be bathed in cool water or wrapped in a cool wet towel
			Cold compresses to the upper body, head, neck, and groin will help cool the victim
			A fan may be used to aid in evaporation of the water
			administer drinking water
			The victim should be placed into the recovery position to ensure that their airway remains open
			DO NOT use ice and a very cold water tub
			DO NOT use alcohol and caffeine drinks
			DO NOT use Alcohol rubs
		medical condition whereby damage is caused to skin and other tissues due to extreme cold. At or below -15 deg  C (5 deg  F)
			discoloration of the skin
			burning and/or tingling sensations
			partial or complete numbness, and possibly intense pain
			gangrene may follow, and amputation may eventually be required
			If left untreated, frostbitten skin gradually darkens after a few hours
			Skin destroyed by frostbite is completely black and looks loose and flayed, as if burnt
		First Aid
			Move the victim to a warm, safe area
			Place the affected areas in very warm (NOT hot) water, until the areas are soft and sensation has returned
				This is going to hurt and you may want a pain killer
			Wrap the affected areas with dressings and/or cloths
			DO NOT rub or massage affected areas
			WARNING if it is unlikely that the affected areas can be kept thawed, treatment should not be carried out
				thawing followed by a second round of freezing can cause more extensive and severe damage to the frostbitten areas
			WARNING If hypothermia has occurred, treat the hypothermia first
		a condition in which the body contains an insufficient volume of water for normal functioning
			a sudden episode of visual snow
			decreased blood pressure
			dizziness or fainting
			thirst and discomfort
			possibly loss of appetite and dry skin
			low endurance
			rapid heart rates
			elevated body temperatures
			rapid onset of fatigue
			decreased urine volume, abnormally dark urine
			unexplained tiredness
			dry mouth
		Untreated dehydration generally results in delirium
		First Aid
			Drinking water and stopping fluid loss
			Water is preferable to sport drinks
			To stop fluid loss from vomiting and diarrhea, avoid solid foods and drink only clear liquids
			DO NOT drink seawater, urine or alcohol
		a burn to living tissue such as skin produced by overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, commonly from the sun's rays
			Redness of skin
			followed by varying degrees of pain
		First Aid
			Remove the victim from the sun and cool the skin
			Applying products containing aloe, aloe with Lidocane, or vitamin E
			Leave blisters intact to speed healing and avoid infection
			Drinking fluids
			Eating high protein foods will assist tissue repair
			Acetaminophen or ibuprofen can also reduce pain
			One method to treatment involves applying a clean washcloth soaked with cool milk like a cold compress
			DO NOT apply ice or butter or any other type of grease to burns
		First Aid
			Move to a safe area
			Removal of the barbed stinger
				The stinger should be removed as fast as possible
				Avoid pinching the stinger but do what it takes and don't delay
			Once the stinger is removed, reduce pain and swelling with a cold compress
			Apply calamine lotion or a baking soda paste with a ratio of 3 teaspoons baking soda to 1 teaspoon water
				The paste goes on the hole - not the rash
			Ice is better than aspirin
			If the victim is allergic the victim must be treated to prevent shock
				People known to be highly allergic should carry appropriate medication and be rushed to a physician
				An antihistamine containing diphenhydramine (Benadryl, Tylenol Severe Allergy) will help
	Tick bites
		First Aid
			Remove the tick promptly and carefully
				Use tweezers to grasp the tick near its head or mouth and pull gently to remove the whole tick without crushing it
			If possible, seal the tick in a jar and keep it for a week or two
				Your doctor may want to see the tick if you develop symptoms of illness after a tick bite
			Use soap and water to wash your hands and the area around the tick bite after handling the tick
			Call your doctor if you aren't able to completely remove the tick or you develop
				A rash, A fever, Muscle aches, Joint pain and inflammation, Swollen lymph nodes, Flu-like symptoms
				A severe headache, Difficulty breathing, Paralysis, Chest pain or heart palpitations
		First Aid
			Move to a safe area
			Remain calm
			Immobilize the bitten arm or leg and try to stay as quiet as possible
			Remove jewelry, because swelling tends to progress rapidly
			Apply a loose splint to reduce movement of the affected area, but make sure it is loose enough that it won't restrict blood flow
			Seek medical attention as soon as possible, especially if the bitten area changes color begins to swell or is painful
			DO NOT try to capture the snake
			DO NOT use a tourniquet or apply ice.
			DO NOT cut the wound or attempt to remove the venom.
			DO NOT administer pain killers
		First Aid
			If the blister isn't too painful
				Do everything possible to keep it intact
				Unbroken skin over a blister provides a natural barrier to bacteria and decreases the risk of infection
				Cover a small blister with an adhesive bandage like moleskin
				Cover a large one with a porous, plastic-coated gauze pad that absorbs moisture and allows the wound to breathe
			DO NOT cover a burn or blister with a towel or blanket, because loose fibers might stick to the skin
			DO NOT puncture a blister unless it's painful or prevents you from walking or using one of your hands
				If you have diabetes or poor circulation, call your doctor before considering the self-care measures below
				Wash your hands and the blister with soap and warm water
				Swab the blister with iodine or rubbing alcohol
				Sterilize a clean, sharp needle by wiping it with rubbing alcohol
				Use the needle to puncture the blister
				Aim for several spots near the blister's edge
				Let the fluid drain, but leave the overlying skin in place
				Apply an antibiotic ointment to the blister and cover with a bandage or gauze pad
				After several days use tweezers and scissors sterilized with rubbing alcohol to cut away all the dead skin
				Apply more ointment and a bandage
				Call your doctor if you see signs of infection around a blister, pus, redness, increasing pain or warm skin
	Altitude sickness
		a condition that is caused by acute exposure to high altitudes
		It commonly occurs above 2,400 metres (approximately 8,000 feet)
			A headache occurring at an altitude above 2,400 meters (8000 feet), combined with any one or more of the following symptoms
			Lack of appetite, nausea, or vomiting
			Fatigue or weakness
			Dizziness or light-headedness
		First Aid
			often a decent of 2000 feet will cure Altitude sickness (Climb High sleep low)
			consciously take ten to twelve large, rapid breaths every five minutes
				If overdone, this can remove too much carbon dioxide and cause tingling in the extremities of the body
			lots of water, a little chocolate and an asprin can help
			If it evolves into pulmonary edema, seak medical attention emediatly
	Cut finger
		First Aid
			Apply ice to reduce swelling and cover it with a clean, dry cloth
			Wrap the severed part in damp gauze (saline would be ideal for wetting the cloth)
			place it in a watertight bag and place the bag on ice
			DO NOT try to preserve the loose part by placing it directly on ice
			Seak medical attention emediatly
	Knocked-out tooth
		First Aid
			Put the tooth in milk
			Seak medical attention (There's a chance the tooth could be reimplanted)
			DO NOT scrub the tooth hard even if it's dirty (a gentle rinse is OK)
	Sprained ankle
		First Aid
			Treat a sprain with ice
			Go to the ER if it is very painful to bear weight, You might have a fracture
			DO NOT use a heating pad
		First Aid
			Sit upright and lean forward and pinch your nose steadily (just below the nasal bone) for five to 10 minutes
			If the bleeding persists for 15 minutes (or if you think you are swallowing a lot of blood) go to the ER
			DO NOT lean back. And after the bleeding has stopped, don't blow your nose or bend over
		First Aid
			Apply steady pressure to the wound with a clean towel or gauze pack and wrap the wound securely
			Keep the victim warm
			Seak medical attention if the bleeding doesn't stop, or if the wound is gaping or caused by an animal bite
			DO NOT use tourniquets unless you are willing to lose the limb
		First Aid
			Lay the victim on the ground if possible in an open space and roll the victim onto his or her side
			Seak medical attention emediatly
			DO NOT put anything in the victim's mouth

2. Describe from memory the priorities for survival in a backcountry or wilderness location. 
	A positive mental attitude is essential
		Usually the most important survival priority
		Humans can live for about three to ten days without water
		The length of survival mostly depends upon climate conditions and physical exertion
		Helps to purify water
		Cooks food
		Provides warmth
		Boosts morale 
		Fire repels bears, insects and snakes
		Humans can survive for weeks without food
		but hunger impairs judgment and clarity of mind
		and makes one weak and susceptible to disease.
	These priorities may shift depending on the environment
		In a desert environment, water is typically more immediately important than fire
		with the priorities (perhaps) reversed in a cold-weather survival situation

3. Describe ways to (a) avoid panic and (b) maintain a high level of morale when lost. 
	Make a good shelter and camp tools
	Build a fire
	Make signals
	Make games, playing and laughing
	Helping others. When helping someone else you have to conquer your own personal fears
	Eat tea gum or candies

4. Tell what you would do to survive in the following environments:
	Cold and snowy 
	Wet (forest) 
	Hot and dry (desert) 
	Windy (mountains or plains) 
	Water (ocean or lake) 

5. Make up a personal survival kit and be able to explain how each item in it is useful 
	at least the 10 essentials (some suggestions include)
	1  Flash light           (LED button light)
	2  Fire kit              (Flint and steel, paper matches, tea candle in tin, magnifying glass)
	3  Signaling device      (whistle, Mirror, ground-to-air card)
	4  Extra food and water  (Boyan cubes, Glyserin tablets, Salt, Snare wire, fishing kit, condom, Heavy Tin foil or Metal container)
	5  Extra clothing        (Needle and thread, Mole skin)
	6  Navigational Aid      (Mini compass, paper and pencil)
	7  First Aid kit         (Tylenol, Advil, Benadryl, Aspirin, Coton, Bandidges, Crazy glue, Potassium permanganate)
	8  Emergency shelter     (Orange garbage bags, space blanket, coil saw, cord)
	9  Knife                 (Double blade Knife, surgical blades)
	10 Sun protection        (Bite and Burn creams, sun lotion 15 SPF or +)

	Les Stroud Made this medium size survival kit in Season 3 Episode 3 of Survivorman
	1  Flash light           (Head lamp)
	2  Fire kit              (Flint and steel, strike anywhere matches, coton)
	3  Signaling device      (Orange garbage bag)
	4  Extra food and water  (Coffee tin and lid, 22 Rifle [10 bullets, coton, flint], fishing kit [line, hooks, sinkers, lours])
	5  Extra clothing        (Duct tape)
	6  Navigational Aid      (Map)
	7  First Aid kit         (Multi tool)
	8  Emergency shelter     (Space blanket, Saw, Rope, Axe)
	9  Knife                 (Hunting Knife)
	10 Sun protection        (There may have been more in his kit than I could see)

6. Show that you can start fires using three methods other than matches. 
	Friction, Percussion, Compression, Sunlight, Electric or Chemical

7. Do the following:
	Tell five different ways of attracting attention when lost. 
	Show how to use a signal mirror. 
		Include the thumb technique
	Describe from memory five international ground-to-air signals and tell what they mean. 
        All is well    Gone This Way    Need Doctor    Need Med Supplies    Safe to Land    Stuck here    Need Food-Water
          *    *             *                *              *  *                 *           *   *          *****
          *    *              *               *              *  *                * *           * *           *
          *    *         *******              *              *  *               *   *           *            *****
          *    *              *               *              *  *              *     *         * *           *
          ***  ***           *                *              *  *             *********       *   *          *

8. Show that you can find and improvise a natural shelter minimizing the damage to the environment. 
	Choose a level spot on a south facing slope with radiant rocks
	Make a good wind, sun, snow and rain block
		you must stay dry (Water conducts heat away from the body 27 times faster than dry, still air)
		drip lines can be added to draw cords to prevent rain and snow drip from getting in your shelter
	Make a soft and warm ground insulation (up to 80% of heat will be lost to the ground)
	A reflector made of logs, stones or a space rescue blanket will warm the shelter
		Do not use stones from a stream bed, they may explode when heated

9. Spend a night in your shelter. 

10. Explain how to protect yourself against
		Fire repels bears, insects and snakes
		Ferns can also be added on a shelter to provide insect repellent
		Use repellant or clothes and mud will protect your skin from insects
		The leaves of elderberry bushes or yarrow plant can be used for an insect repellent
			crush and rub them on your body or place in your clothing
		Fire repels bears, insects and snakes
		Good boots
		Caution when walking and climbing
			Fire repels bears and insects and snakes
			Travel in groups
			Keep food (deodorant, toothpaste, etc) separate from camp 100 meters+ away and 4 meters+ up
			Keep camp clean
			Make noise and travel in groups
			DO NOT wear scented products
		If you do encounter a bear
			Keep your pack on (Bears atack the back of the neck)
			If the bear is not threatening you, back away slowly, providing an open escape route for the bear
			Keep dogs away from bears. A dog can excite a bear, which may then follow the dog back to the owner
			DO NOT climb a tree. Most bears climb trees faster and better than humans
			DO NOT turn your back to it or run, a fleeing human being stimulates its instinct to chase. The bear IS faster than you!
		If you are charged or attacked
			DO NOT panic
			Stand your ground (avoid direct eye contact) - if you have pepper spray, get it ready
			Sometimes a bear will make several bluff charges
				Do not use pepper spray unless you are sure the bear is not bluffing
			If the bear stops after a bluff charge
				Slowly wave your arms
				Talk softly and back away slowly
			If the bear doesn't stop, use your pepper spray at 40 - 50 feet
                                Create a wall of pepper spray in front of you
			If it is a grizzly
				Play dead (LAST RESORT and ONLY if it has contacted you)
				Lie flat on your stomach with your hands clasped behind your neck (protect the back of your neck)
				Remain silent
			If it is a black bear
				DO NOT play dead
				Do whatever you can to fight off the bear
			DO NOT play dead if you know that any bear is eating you
	Mountain Lion (Cougar)
		Exaggerate the threat to the animal through intense eye contact
		Use loud but CALM shouting
		Use actions that make a person appear larger and more menacing
		Stay tall and avoid bending over
		Fighting back with sticks and rocks may also cause a cougar to disengage
		DO NOT corner it, as with many animals, a cougar may attack if cornered
		DO NOT turn your back to it or run, a fleeing human being stimulates its instinct to chase
		DO NOT play dead
		DO NOT limp or show injury

11. Show three ways to treat water found in the outdoors to prepare it for drinking. 
	Water can be purified with filters, boiling or chemicals
	rain water is typically safe
	clean Water can be collected from condensation traps or solar stills
	Clothing can be used to collect clean dew from vegetation
		Tie a tee shirt to your leg and walk through dew covered grass in the morning or evening
	DO NOT drink Animal blood
		it may be diseased and because of the nutrients it contains, it requires energy to digest
	DO NOT drink Urine it contains salt and other toxins
		it can be refined in a solar still
	DO NOT drink cactus juice
		While some cacti do have fluid inside, it is a highly acidic solution and would induce vomiting
	In extremely dry environments, it is necessary to take extra care to prevent water loss
		Breathing through the nose to prevent water vapor escaping through the mouth
		Not smoking
		Resting in the shade and avoiding strenuous labor during sunny, hot periods
		Not eating too much (the human body uses a lot of water to digest food - especially fats and proteins)
		Not drinking alcohol, caffeine or chocolate, which hastens dehydration

12. Show that you know the proper clothing to wear in your area on an overnight in extremely hot weather and extremely cold weather. 

13. Explain why it usually is not wise to eat edible wild plants or wildlife in a wilderness survival situation.
	Many survival books promote the "universal edibility test" (lip test)
	However, many experts (such as Ray Mears) deprecate this method
		a very small amount of some "potential foods" can cause anything from gastric distress to illness or death

My favorite multi-tool is the Leatherman Wave. Other than the multi-tool, an ax is an amazing item to have.
Don't forget to keep a sharpening file with it and learn how to sharpen it makes a big difference.
A bandana is always useful and, of course, a fool-proof way to start a fire is essential.

There is no question that having a multi-tool or fold-up knife with a saw blade is a fantastic advantage.
That little saw blade makes fashioning tools and traps a lot easier.

I would always keep with me a surefire way to make a fire (so to speak)

The Psychology of Wilderness Survival, Gino F. Ferri
Wilderness Living and Primitive Skills, John and Geri McPherson
Bushcraft, Mors Kochanski
Outdoor Survival Skills, Larry Dean Olsen
The Art of Survival, Cord Christian, Troebst (out of print)
Any of the Peterson Field Guides (wild edibles, etc.)

	Hike in
	Give shelter demo
	Allow time for boys to make over night shelters
	Scouter's minute
		Hand out study materials
		Give potable water challenge
		Give snare challenge (catch a log)
		Read survival scripture
			The Nephites gather to the land of Cumorah for the final battles
			Mormon hides the sacred records in the hill Cumorah
			The Lamanites are victorious, and the Nephite nation is destroyed
			Hundreds of thousands are slain with the sword. [A.D. 385]
			Morm. 6: 11
			11 And when they had gone through and hewn down all my people save it were twenty and four of us,
				(among whom was my son Moroni) and we having survived the dead of our people, did behold on the morrow,
				when the Lamanites had returned unto their camps, from the top of the hill Cumorah,
				the ten thousand of my people who were hewn down, being led in the front by me. 
	Boys sleep in overnight shelters
	Review the survival requirements
	First aid role plays
	Show survival kit samples
		water condom
		Potassium permanganate
	Alternate fire demo
		Potassium permanganate
		Wet paper matches demo
		popcan chocolate demo
		Pop corn challenge
	Mirror signal challenge
	Maggot, ant egg, cricket, prickly pear, dandy lion and meal worm challenge
		Cattail soup (fall or winter)
		Nutritious and productive root vegetable
		Generally harvested in the fall and winter
		The pollen is also sometimes used as a flour supplement
		The young grass flowering stalks, when fried, become tender
	Patrol Mapping Challenge
		compare to toppo
	Make a weapon and Tree Measure challenge
	Scouter's minute
		Hand out challenge rewards
	Hike out